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Janka scale to compare and rate  various types of hardwood flooring.


Wood Flooring Species Hardness
Ipe / Brazilian Walnut / Lapacho 3684
Cumaru / Brazilian Teak 3540
Ebony 3220
Brazilian Redwood / Paraju 3190
Angelim Pedra 3040
Bloodwood 2900
Red Mahogany / Turpentine 2697
Spotted Gum 2473
Brazilian Cherry / Jatoba 2350
Mesquite 2345
Santos Mahogany / Bocote / Cabreuva 2200
Pradoo 2170
Brushbox 2135
Karri 2030
Sydney Blue Gum 2023
Bubinga 1980
Cameron 1940
Tallowwood 1933
Merbau 1925
Amendoim 1912
Jarrah 1910
Purpleheart 1860
Goncalo Alves / Tigerwood 1850
Hickory / Pecan / Satinwood 1820
Afzelia / Doussie 1810
Bangkirai 1798
Rosewood 1780
African Padauk 1725
Blackwood 1720
Merbau 1712
Kempas 1710
Locust 1700
Highland Beech 1686
Wenge / Red Pine 1630
Tualang 1624
Zebrawood 1575
True Pine / Timborana 1570
Peroba 1557
Kambala 1540
Sapele / Sapelli 1510
Curupixa 1490
Sweet Birch 1470
Hard Maple / Sugar Maple 1450
Coffee Bean 1390
Natural Bamboo (represents one species) 1380
Australian Cypress 1375
White Oak 1360
Tasmanian Oak 1350
Ribbon Gum 1349
Ash (White) 1320
American Beech 1300
Red Oak (Northern) 1290
Carribean Heart Pine 1280
Yellow Birch 1260
Movingui 1230
Heart Pine 1225
Carbonized Bamboo (represents one species) 1180
Cocobolo 1136
Brazilian Eucalyptus / Rose Gum 1125
Makore 1100
Boreal 1023
Black Walnut 1010
Teak 1000
Sakura 995
Black Cherry / Imbuia 950
Boire 940
Paper Birch 910
Cedar 900
Southern Yellow Pine (Longleaf) 870
Lacewood / Leopardwood 840
Parana 780
Sycamore 770
Shedua 710
Southern Yellow Pine (Loblolly and Shortleaf) 690
Douglas Fir 660
Larch 590
Chestnut 540
Hemlock 500
White Pine 420
Basswood 410
Eastern White Pine 380

Janka hardness test

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Janka hardness test measures the hardness of wood. It measures the force required to embed an 11.28 mm (0.444 in) steel ball into wood to half the ball's diameter. This method leaves an indentation. It is a good measurement technique to determine the ability of a type of wood withstand denting and wear. It is also a good indicator of how resistant it is to sawing and nailing.

The hardness of wood varies with the direction of the wood grain. Testing on the surface of a plank, perpendicular to the grain, is said to be of "side hardness." Testing the cut surface of a stump is called a test of "end hardness."

The results are stated in various ways, which can lead to confusion, especially when the name of the actual units employed is often not attached. In the United States, the measurement is in pounds-force (lbf). In Sweden it is in kilograms-force (kgf), and in Australia, either in newtons (N) or kilonewtons (kN). Sometimes the results are treated as units, for example "660 Janka".

To convert pound-force (lbf) units to newtons N multiply pound-force by 0.45359237 then multiply by 9.80665 (1 standard g in units of m/s2). Janka hardness N = (lbf x 0.45359237) x 9.80665 OR multiply by 4.44822161526. To get lbf from N, multiply N by 0.224808943099736.

A common use of Janka hardness ratings is to determine whether a species is suitable for use as flooring.

The Janka Hardness test below is done in accordance with ASTM D 1037-7 testing methods. Material stocks ranges from 1" to 2" thick. (Numbers are an average. Testing is done on samples, not flooring that is already in place.) There is a standard deviation, but these numbers are not published. Other factors affect how flooring performs: type of core (for engineered flooring), grain direction and thickness floor or top wear surface

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